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The structure of the shamanistic complex among the Netsilik and Iglulik

The structure of the shamanistic complex among the Netsilik and Iglulik
Pages: 83 - 98
Type: Hors-thème
Auteur(s) / Author(s): Jaarich G. Oosten
Résumé:

On étudie généralement le chamanisme comme un phénomène religieux et idéologique, en faisant ressortir les ressemblances transculturelles du complexe chamanique mais en sous-estimant les différences, qui se révèlent pourtant nombreuses. Lewis (Ecstatic Religion, 1971) nous fournit un cadre théorique utile à l'analyse sociologique du chamanisme avec la distinction entre cultes de possession « centraux » et « périphériques ». Cependant le chamanisme inuit ne saurait être rangé de façon absolue dans l'une ou l'autre catégorie. Il est ouvert à divers groupes: les chasseurs pauvres et les riches, les hommes et les femmes. Mais si les femmes peuvent y participer l'opposition idéologique entre les sexes qui prévaut dans la culture inuit, se reflète aussi dans l'idéologie, la pratique et la structure sociale du chamanisme.

 

Abstract:

Shamanism is usually studied as a religious and ideological phenomenon. Resemblances between shamanistic complexes in different cultures are often stressed, while differences are underestimated. In studying the social structure of shamanism in various cultures many differences become apparent. A useful theoretical framework for the sociological study of shamanism is offered by Lewis in Ecstatic Religion (1971). He distinguishes between central and peripheral possession cults. Inuit shamanism however, cannot be classified unambiguously in either of these categories. The shamanistic complex offers scope to all kinds of people: poor hunters and successful hunters, men and women. Although both men and women can perform as shamans, the ideological opposition between men and women in Inuit culture is also reflected in the different ideological, structural and social practice aspects of Inuit shamanism.