The area studied corresponds to the Quebec littoral and adjacent islands visited by Paleoeskimos and Neoeskimos. The Cap Nouvelle-France seems to mark the separation between the groups which had close connections, on one hand, with the West and the North-West and, on the other hand, with the East (Labrador). Predorset occupation is witnessed from at least 3 300 B.P., whereas Dorset was mostly between 2 300 and 2 800 B.P. It prolongs itself well into the 15th century at, at least, two places: Guillaume-Delisle Lake (Hudsonia) and the north-west of Ungava. In Ungava, date groupings suggest more intense Dorset occupation periods: around 2 000 +/- 100 B.P., 1 500 +/- 300 B.P., 1 000 +/- 200 B.P. and 500 +/- 150 B.P. Geomorphological data collected in Northern Quebec during the last ten years confirm and specify the paleoclimatic data obtained for the entire Canadian Arctic, particularly in regard to the two frequently stated dates of appearance of peat, around 5 000 B.P. and 2 500 B.P.