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L'ethnicité, un outil politique pour les autochtones de l'Arctique et de l'Amazonie

Ethnicity as a political instrument for the Arctic and Amazonian native peoples
Pages: 37 - 68
Résumé:

Depuis vingt-cinq ans, l'ethnicité autochtone a connu des développements spectaculaires auxquels participèrent d'ailleurs de façon importante plusieurs anthropologues dans le sillage de Fredrik Barth. Ceux-ci travaillèrent à la conceptualisation des mobilisations ethniques des peuples autochtones et apportèrent un soutien actif à la cause autochtone au plan international. L'article expose trois cas illustrant les voies diverses de l'utilisation de l'ethnicité comme outil politique: les Youkaguires qui réinventent leur ethnicité, les Inuit qui mettent de l'avant une culture commune au-delà des différences régionales et nationales, enfin, les Indiens d'Amazonie qui s'unissent en un front panethnique transnational sur la base de leur autochtonie et d'un semblable rapport au monde.

Abstract:

Native ethnicity has undergone spectacular transformation over the last 28 years and many anthropologists, working in the wake of Fredrik Barth, have made a significant contribution to these developments. They have produced a conceptual framework to deal with ethnic mobilization by native peoples and actively supported the cause on the international level. This paper presents three case studies showing the various ways in which ethnicity has been used as a political instrument: the Yukagirs who have reinvented their ethnic identity, the Inuit who have set aside their regional and national differences to stress a common culture and the Amazonian Indians who have built a panethnic transnational organization on the basis of their "autochthony" and their share of relationship to the world.