The signing of comprehensive land claim agreements (CLCAs) is changing the economic and political landscape of the Canadian North. This paper looks at the institutional and operational structures of two agreements in Canada. Our focus is on the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA), signed in 1975, and the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) achieved in 1984. These agreements represent the first modern land claims signed in Canada. Our particular focus is a comparative analysis of the two agreements and their resulting administrative structures and operations.